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Masters of Greek Thought: Plato, Socrates, and Aristotle

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Masters of Greek Thought: Plato, Socrates, and Aristotle
Masters of Greek Thought: Plato, Socrates, and Aristotle
36xDVDRip | AVI / XviD, ~493 kb/s | 640x480 | Duration: 18:11:20 | English: MP3, 128 kb/s (2 ch) | + PDF Guide | 4.56 GB
Genre: History, Biography, Philosophy


For more than two millennia, philosophers have grappled with life's most profound issues. It is easy to forget, however, that these "eternal" questions are not eternal at all; rather, they once had to be asked for the first time. It was the Athenian citizen and philosopher Socrates who first asked these questions in the 5th century B.C. "Socrates," notes award-winning Professor Robert C. Bartlett, "was responsible for a fundamentally new way of philosophizing": trying to understand the world by reason.
For more than two millennia, philosophers have grappled with life's most profound issues. It is easy to forget, however, that these "eternal" questions are not eternal at all; rather, they once had to be asked for the first time. It was the Athenian citizen and philosopher Socrates who first asked these questions in the 5th century B.C. "Socrates," notes award-winning Professor Robert C. Bartlett, "was responsible for a fundamentally new way of philosophizing": trying to understand the world by reason.

Masters of Greek Thought: Plato, Socrates, and Aristotle, a 36-lecture course taught by Professor Bartlett, provides you with a detailed analysis of the golden age of Athenian philosophy and the philosophical consequences that occurred when Socratesâ€"followed first by his student Plato and then by Plato's own student Aristotleâ€"permanently altered our approach to the most important questions humanity can pose.

What Was the "Socratic Turn"?

The Socratic break with earlier philosophy was a shift in thought that led to some of the most important and intellectually exciting concepts in all of philosophy. Socrates' influence on a new generation of philosophers, most importantly, Plato and Aristotle, ensured that his ideas would change the face of philosophy.

Prior to Socrates' new approach, philosophy was concerned primarily with the project of "natural philosophy": a prescientific study of nature and the physical world. Professor Bartlett begins the course with a discussion of how Socrates came to the "Socratic turn" that veered away from the study of natural science and toward the scrutiny of moral opinion. You recognize how crucial this turn was because it became the fulcrum around which a new era of philosophy turne. Never again could philosophers return to their ancient role of merely attempting to grasp the natural order of a world previously ascribed to the planning or whimsy of the gods.

The new arguments that Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle posed were intended not for other philosophers but for anyone seeking to live a thoughtful and attentive life. Throughout the course, you come to see how their inquiries about the fundamental meanings and implications of ideas like justice, virtue, and happiness pushed their fellow citizens to ponder the roles such ideas played in their daily lives and in society. They even asked their peers to consider whether these and other questions were ones that anyone could hope to answer.

See Socrates through Plato's Eyes

Unfortunately, the thinker who forever altered the course of philosophy never actually wrote down his words. So how can we hope to know what Socrates, whom many believe to be the foundational thinker of Western philosophy, really believed?

The answer, Professor Bartlett shows, lies in the fact that much of Socrates' philosophy is captured in the writings of his contemporaries and followers. As a means of leading you to a sharper picture of the real Socrates, the course introduces you to the writings of three key figures:
Xenophon: the great thinker and military commander who wrote a series of Socratic sayings that survives to this day
Aristophanes: whose comic play Clouds is both a send-up and a thoughtful critique of Socrates that is crucial to understanding his philosophical evolution
Plato: a brilliant young man from a wealthy and politically active family who became Socrates' best student and whose works, written in the form of dialogues between two or more persons, feature Socrates as the protagonist

Plato, in particular, is an essential source of information about Socrates. Over the course of a dozen lectures, you explore the wide variety of Plato's brilliant dialogues and how they reflect the core of Socrates' philosophy of morality and justice:
Alcibiades I, which depicts Socrates' reasoning why the young Alcibiades needs him
Symposium, in which seven partiers discuss the nature of love
Republic, perhaps Plato's best-known work, which focuses on the definition and nature of justice
Protagoras, in which Socrates and Protagoras argue whether virtue can be taught
Gorgias, which depicts an argument over who is more important, the philosopher or the rhetorician
Meno, which seeks to come to a general definition of virtue

Professor Bartlett then turns the discussion to those Platonic dialogues that cover the well-known trial and execution of Socrates at the hands of the Athenian state. By examining Euthyphro, Apology of Socrates, and Crito as a whole, you develop a deeper understanding of the defense strategy Socrates chose, why he chose it, and how it ultimately failed him. You also review whether Plato's sympathetic defense of his teacher was successful in the long run.

Lectures:
1 Socrates and His Heirs
2 The Socratic Revolution
3 Aristophanes's Comic Critique of Socrates
4 Xenophon's Recollections of Socrates
5 Xenophon and Socratic Philosophy
6 Plato’s Socrates and the Platonic Dialogue
7 Socrates as Teacherâ€"Alcibiades
8 Socrates and Justiceâ€"Republic, Part 1
9 The Case against Justiceâ€"Republic, Part 2
10 Building the Best Cityâ€"Republic, Part 3
11 Philosophers as Kings
12 Socrates as Teacher of Justice
13 Socrates versus the Sophists
14 Protagoras Undone
15 Socrates versus the Rhetoricians
16 Rhetoric and Tyranny
17 Callicles and the Problem of Justice
18 What Is Virtue? Meno, Part 1
19 Can Virtue Be Taught? Meno, Part 2
20 The Trial of Socrates Iâ€"Euthyphro
21 The Trial of Socrates IIâ€"Apology, Part 1
22 The Trial of Socrates IIIâ€"Apology, Part 2
23 The Trial of Socrates IVâ€"Crito
24 The Socratic Revolution Revisitedâ€"Phaedo
25 Aristotle and the Socratic Legacy
26 The Problem of Happinessâ€"Ethics 1
27 Introduction to Moral Virtueâ€"Ethics 2
28 The Principal Moral Virtuesâ€"Ethics 3â€"5
29 Prudence, Continence, Pleasureâ€"Ethics 6â€"7
30 Friendshipâ€"Ethics 8â€"9
31 Philosophy and the Good Lifeâ€"Ethics 10
32 The Political Animalâ€"Politics 1â€"2
33 Justice and the Common Goodâ€"Politics 3
34 Aristotle's Political Scienceâ€"Politics 4â€"6
35 The Best Regimeâ€"Politics 7â€"8
36 Concluding Reflections



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